Anagyrus kamali

Anagyrus kamali Moursi

Systematic position: Insecta, Holometabola, Hymenoptera. Apocrita, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae.

Geographical distribution: Anagyrus kamali, of South Asian origin, has been introduced to and became established in the Americas and is now of almost cosmopolitan distribution.

Morphology: Thorax bright red, abdomen brown-red, wings with a single anterior vein, distal segments of antennae yellow, basic segments dark,

Life history: Anagyrus kamali is an endoparasitoid of several mealybugs, especially Maconellicoccus hirsutus, also of Ferrisia virgata and Nipaecoccus viridia. It attacks all host stages, preferring the pre-ovipositional adult females, in which 2 or more eggs may be deposited. Parasitoid fecundity comes to 40-90 eggs/female, more in larger hosts, and they live for 4-5 weeks.

Economic importance: Anagyrus kamali, of south Asian origin, is a very efficient enemy of M. hirsutus. It has been introduced into different parts of the world, at time bringing about 75-95% pest reductions. However, its efficacy may be limited by the encapsulation of its eggs, especially in the females. Organophosphates and pyrethroids, applied against mealybugs, were very toxic to A. kamali.


Abd-Rabou, S. 2005. The effect of augmentative releases of indigenous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) on populations of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Egypt. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection 38: 129-132.

Evans, G., Kondo, T., Maya-Álvarez, M.F., Hoyos-Carvajal, L.M., Quiroz, J.A. and Silva-Gómez , M. 2012. First report of Anagyrus kamali Moursi and Gyranusoidea indica Shafee, Alam and Agarwal (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitoids of the pink hibiscus mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on San Andres Island, Colombia. Revista Corpoica - Ciencia y Tecnología Agropecuaria 13: 219-222.

Moursi, AA. 1948. Anagyrus kamali Moursi, a parasitoid of the hibiscus mealybug, Phenacoccus hirsutus Green. Bulletin de la Societe Fouad 1st d’Entomologie 32: 9–16.

Persad, A. and Khan, A. 2002. Comparison of life table parameters for Maconellicoccus hirsutus, Anagyrus kamali, Cryptolaemus montrouzieri and Scymnus coccivora. BioControl 47: 137-149.

Persad, A. and Khan, A. 2000. The effect of five insecticides on Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and its natural enemies Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant and Scymnus coccivora Aiyar (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). International Pest Control 42: 170-173.

Roltsch, W.J., Meyerdirk, D.E., Warkentin, R., Andress, E.R. and Carrera, K.. 2006. Classical biological control of the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green), in southern California. Biological Control 37:155-166.

Sagarra, L.A., Peterkin, D.D., Vincent, C. and Stewart, R.K. 2000. Immune response of the hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus Green (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), to oviposition of the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 46: 647-653.

Sagarra, LA, Vincent, C and Stewart, RK. 2001. Suitability of nine mealybug species (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) as hosts for the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Florida Entomologist 84: 112–116.

Sagarra, L.A., Vincent, C. and Stewart, R.K. 2001.. Body size as an indicator of parasitoid quality in male and female Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research 91: 363–367.

Spodek, M., Watson, G.W. and Mendel, Z. 2016. The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), a new threat to Israel’s agriculture and horticulture. EPPO Bulletin 46: 311-312.