Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Girault)
(Formerly placed in the genus Tetrastichus)
Geographical distribution: Holarctic, Near East and introduced into parts of Africa and Australia for biocontrol purposes.
Morphology: The female is shiny, metallic-black, about 1.0-1.5 mm in length, legs mostly yellow, wings hyaline, antenna yellow, with long setae.
Life history: Aprostocetus ceroplastae is an endoparasitoid of the third instar and young females of soft scales. Its threshold of development is at 7°C, and 460 day degrees are required to complete a generation. The eggs placed In the bodies of some of its hosts become encapsulated, inhibiting their development; the rates of encapsulation are affected by the scale’s host plant.
Argov, Y., Schneider, B. and Rosen, D. 1992. Parasitism of Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, on citrus in Israel. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa 55: 21-31.
Ben-Dov, Y. 1972 Life history of Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) a parasite of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae), in Israel. Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa 35: 17-34.
Ragab, M.E. 1995. Efficiency of Scutellista cyanea Motsch. (Hym. Pteromalidae) and Tetrastichus cetoplastae (Gir.) (Hym, Eulophidae) in population suppression of Ceroplastes rusci L. (Hom., Coccidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 119: 627–630.
Schneider, B., Podoler, H. and Rosen, D. 1988. Population dynamics of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae), on citrus in Israel. 5. — Effect of the parasite, Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Girault). Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata 9: 75-83.
Wakgari, W. and Giliomee, J. 2001. Effects of some conventional insecticides and insect growth regulators on different phenological stages of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae), and its primary parasitoid, Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). International Journal of Pest Management 47: 179-184.