Ceranisus menes Walker
Distribution: Almost worldwide.
Morphology: Adults are 0.7-1.0 mm in length, head and thorax black, abdomen dark yellow, wings with only a single, anterior vein, legs and the short antennae yellow. Females from various regions differ in the color of their abdomen, from yellow to brown.
Life history: Ceranisus menes is a (usually) uniparental, solitary endoparasitoid of the larvae (especially first instar) of several thrips. Some sexual (biparental) strains are also known. Brown types produced more offspring but showed a larger variation in developmental time than yellow types; development usually takes 4-5 weeks. Females live for about 2 weeks if sugary nutrients are provided.
Economic importance: Ceranisus menes is an important natural enemy of pest thrips like Frankliniella occidentalis, Retithrips syriacus, Thrips palmi and Thrips tabaci. The rate of pest control differs when attacking different hosts on different host plants. In some regions the yellow parasitoids appear to be more effective control agents than the brown ones, in other areas the brown C. menes are more fecund.
Doǧanlar, O., Doǧanlar, M., and Frary, A. 2010. Preliminary phylogeny of the thrips parasitoids of Turkey based on some morphological scales and 28S D2 rDNA, with description of a new species. Turkish Journal of Zoology 34: 279-289.
Loomans, A.J.M. 2006. Exploration for hymenopterous parasitoids of thrips. Bulletin of Insectology 59: 69-83.
Loomans, A.J.M., Murai, T., van Heest, J.P.N.F. and van Lenteren, J.C. 1995. Ceranisus menes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for control of western flower thrips: biology and behavior. In: Parker B.L., Skinner M., Lewis T. (eds) Thrips Biology and Management. Springer, Boston, USA, pp.
Marzo, L. De, 2004: Reports of Ceranisus menes (Walker) from Southern Italy (Hymenoptera Eulophidae). Entomologica 38: 127-133.
Rubin, A. AND Kuslitzky, W. 1992: First record of Ceranisus menes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Israel. Phytoparasitica 20: 123-124.
Tagashira, E. AND Hirose, Y., 2001. Development and reproduction of Ceranisus menes (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a larval parasitoid of thrips: effects of two host species, Frankliniella intonsa and Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 36: 237-241.