Clausenia josefi Rosen
Geographical distribution: Middle East, Mediterranean region.
Morphology: Body about 2-3 mm in length, metallic-black with a bluish hue, eyes very large and greyish, legs mostly yellow. wings with only a single, anterior vein.
Life cycle: An internal, solitary arrhenotokous parasitoid that attacks the early host instars. In Israeli vineyards its populations peak in early summer and in autumn. Fecundity is around 70 eggs/female. The calculated threshold of development is at 13,5°C and about 475 day degrees are needed for completing a generation. The optimum temperature for development is around 30°C. In the south of Israel this species, which can live for several weeks, raises 8 annual generations.
Economic importance: A parasitoid of several species of Planococcus, whose controlling effect is unknown.
Berlinger, M.J. 1973. Biological studies of Clausenia josefi (Hym., Encyrtidae), a parasite of Planococcus vitis. Entomophaga 18: 279-286.
Berlinger, M.J. 1973. Effect of relative humidity and temperature on the survival of Clausenia josefi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Experimentalis e Applica 16: 373–379.
Rosen, D. 1965, A new species of Clausenia Ishii (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Israel. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London (B) 34: 61-64.