Diachasmimorpha kraussii

Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway

Systematic position: Insecta, Holometabola, Hymenoptera, Apocrita, Chalcidoidea, Braconidae.

Distribution: Of Australian origin, this species has been introduced into the Americas and the Middle East.

Morphology: The adult is about 5-6 mm in length, mostly dark-orange and with black eyes. The ovipositor is very long, about as long as body plus head.

Life history: Diachasmimorpha krausii attacks about a dozen species of tephritid fruit flies. It deposits eggs in the host larva (maggot), and completes its development in the pupa (thus a larval-pupal endoparasitoid). Fecundity (at 24°C) comes to about 120 eggs/female and adult longevity is about 3-4 weeks. Fruit flies infesting guava (Psidium guajava L.) and peach fruits are more often, and more heavily, parasitized than Tephritidae in other fruits.

Economic importance: An important solitary endoparasitoid of several pest fruit flies, especially (in the Middle East) Ceratitis capitata and Bactrocera oleae. The parasitoid was introduced into many regions within biocontrol programs. However, in some species of Bactrocera the eggs of D. kraussii were encapsulated by the host larvae and no viable parasitoid offspring emerged. Several methods for mass-rearing D. tryoni are available.


Argov, Y., Blanchet, A. and Gazit, Y. 2008. Biological control of the Mediterranean fruit fly in Israel: Biological parameters of imported parasitoid wasps. Biological Control 59 209–214.

Ero, M.M., Neale, C.J., Hamacek, E., Peek, T. and Clarke, A.R. 2011. Preference and performance of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on five commercial fruit species. Journal of Applied Entomology 135: 214-224.

Ero, M.M. and Clarke, A.R. 2011. Host location by the fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha krausii: role of fruit fly species, life stage and host plant. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 14: 101-110.

Masry, A., Furlong, M.J., Clarke, A.R. and Cunningham, J.P. 2016. An improved culturing method for opiine fruit fly parasitoids and its application to parasitoid monitoring in the field. Insect Science 25: 99-108.

Messing, R.H. and Ramadan, M.M. 1999. Host range and reproductive output of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of tephritid fruit flies newly imported to Hawaii. In: Proceedings of International Conference of Fruit Flies Economic Importance, Penang, Malaysia, pp. 713–718.

Rungrojwanisch, K. and Walter, G.H. 2000. The Australian fruit fly parasitoid Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Fullaway): Life history, ovipositional patterns, distribution and hosts (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Opiinae). Pan-Pacific Entomologist 76:1-11.

Sime, K.R. (and 7 co-authors) 2006. Diachasmimorpha longicaudata and D. kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), potential parasitoids of the olive fruit fly. Biocontrol Science and Technology 16:169–179.

Website https://www.google.co.il/search?q=diachasmimorpha+kraussii&tbm=isch&tbo=u&source=univ&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiE_-zAqLTaAhXJUlAKHfh5DMgQsAQIJA&biw=1280&bih=644