Serangium montazerii Fürsch and Serangium parcesetosum Sicard
(Both species occur in the Middle East and were often confused in the literature. They are very similar in morphology and biology, and both feed on whiteflies).
Distribution: Both species occur in southern Asia. Serangium. parcesetosum has been introduced from India into Europe, Russia, North America and the Middle East.
Host plants: Wherever their whitefly prey occur.
Morphology: Body convex, about 2 mm in length, body and elytra reddish-brown, with a row of minute darker spots on either side of suture. Larva pale grey, slightly greenish, body narrowed towards posterior half. Adults of these species may be separated by S. montazerii having smaller eyes that are separated by more than their diameter, whereas the eyes of S. parcesetosum are larger and closer together.
Life history: These species are predators of whiteflies. A generation requires about 3-4 weeks at 23-33°C and under these conditions the predators may live for about 3-4 months. Development, fecundity (usually about 200-300 eggs/female) and survival are best at 20°C and affected by the host plant of the prey, being shortest and best on cucumber as compared to cotton. They can consume several thousand Bemisia tabaci during their development, and their maximum cumulative lifetime predation was estimated at >10,000 B. tabaci. They may also feed and reproduce on less-preferred prey, like Coccus hesperidum, Aphis gossypii, Frankliniella occidentalis and Tetranychus urticae. The predators can be mass-reared in the laboratory on whitefly-infested cotton.
Economic importance: Important predators of several whitely pests, such as B. tabaci, Dialeurodes citri, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and others. In a glasshouse experiment S. parcesetosum reduced B. tabaci numbers by about 90%. The predator attacked B. tabaci that were parasitized by immature Eretmocerus mundus Mercet, but avoided feeding on hosts containing the parasitoid pupae. In Turkey S. parcesetosum effectively reduced the numbers of D. citri infesting citrus groves during 4 years.
Al-Zyoud, F. A. 2012. The ladybird predator Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): current status and future perspectives. Journal of Biological Control 26: 297-313.
Al-Zyoud, F. and Sengonca, C. 2004. Prey consumption preferences of Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Col., Coccinelidae) for different prey stages, species and parasitized prey. Journal of Pest Science 77: 197-204.
Al-Zyoud, F., Sengonca, C. and Al-Abbadi, S. 2007. Evaluation of Serangium parcesetosum (Col.: Coccinellidae) for biological control of Bemisia tabaci under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Pest Science 80: 85–92.
Al-Zyoud, F., Tort, N. and Sengonca, C. 2005. Influence of leaf portion and plant species on the egg-laying behaviour of the ladybird Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Col., Coccinellidae) in the presence of another natural enemy. Journal of Pest Science 78: 25-30.
Kutuk, H., Yigit, A. and Alaoglu, O. 2011. Intraguild predation of Serangium parcesetosum (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), on whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) parasitized by Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Biocontrol Science and Technology 21: 985-989.
Legaspi, J.C., Legaspi, B.C., Meagher, R.L and Ciomperlik, M.A., Jr. 1996. Evaluation of Serangium parcesetosum (Col., Coccinellidae) as a biological control agent of the silverleaf whitefly (Hom., Aleyrodidae). Environmental Entomology 25: 1421–1427.
Sengonca C, Al-Zyoud, F., Blaeser P, 2005. Prey consumption by larval and adult stages of the entomophagous ladybird Serangium parcesetosum Sicard (Col., Coccinellidae) of the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hom., Aleyrodidae), at two different temperatures. Journal of Pest Science 78: 179–186.
Vatansever, G., Ulusoy, M.R. and Erkılıç, L.B. 2003. Improving the mass rearing possibilities of Serangium montazerii Fürsch (Col.: Coccinellidae) on different host plants of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 27: 175- 181.
Yigit, A., Canhilal, R. and Ekmekci, U. 2003. Seasonal population fluctuations of Serangium montazerii (Col., Coccinellidae), a predator of citrus whitefly, Dialeurodes citri (Hom., Aleyrodidae) in Turkey’s eastern Mediterranean citrus groves. Environmental Entomology 32: 1105-1114.