Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Holometabola.
Formerly this order, which contains over 120.000 described species, was divided into 3 suborders: Nematocera, Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha. Currently only two suborders are recognized, Nematocera and Brachycera.
Common name: Flies.
Geographical distribution: World-wide.
Morphology: Members of the 2 suborders show much variability in their morphology, but are recognizable by the adults bearing only forewings; the hindwings are modified into halteres. The mouthparts are adapted for sucking or piercing. The larvae of the Nematocera have a large head whereas that of the Brachycera is reduced, almost vestigial, and their larvae are often called maggots.
Life history: Most Dipteran larvae live in aquatic or moist environments. Their diets are very variable, including fungi, plants, other invertebrates and the blood of vertebrates.
Economic importance The Diptera include many plant pests as well as those that are of medical and veterinary importance. Agricultural pests consist of leafminers (Agromyzidae), gall midge (Cecidomyiidae), fruit flies (Tephritidae, the Anthomyiidae and some Muscidae. Other Diptera feed on vertebrates by sucking blood and may also transmit various diseases, like malaria and yellow fever (mosquitoes) and the African sleeping disease (Glossina spp.). The Diptera also include pollinators and some biological control agents, like the Syrphidae, the Cecidomyiidae and the Tabanidae.
Species covered in this compendium
Apiomyia bergenstammi (Pear gall midge).
Asphondylia gennadii (Carob gall midge)
Atherigona soccata (Sorghum shoot fly).
Bactrocera oleae (olive fruit fly).
Bactrocera zonata (Peach fruit fly).
Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly).
Contarinia citri (Citrus blossom midge).
Delia antiqua (Onion maggot).
Delia flavibasis (Cereal root maggot).
Liriomyza huidobrensis (Pea leafminer).
Liriomyza trifolii (Serpentine leafminer).
Mayetiola destructor (Hessian fly).
Myiopardalis pardalina (Baluchistan melon fly).
Pegomyia betae (Beet fly).