Taxonomic placing: Insecta, Hemimetabola.

Common name: Bugs, true bugs.

An order in the Insecta containing about 80.000 species, including the aphids, cicadas, leafhoppers, scale insects, whiteflies planthoppers,and others. They are characterized by their sucking mouthparts, with which they pierce the host (plant or animal) and suck out its fluids. They vary greatly in size and colour. Adult females either with two pairs of wings or none. If they are winged, then the anterior pair is thicker, either wholly or only at its the basal part (hemelytra). Most hemipteran are plant feeders, whereas others are predatory or parasitic. They are usually divided into two suborders.

1. Homoptera, which may be recognized by their forewings (when present), which are of uniform consistency, and by the long mouthparts that reach the anterior coxae. They include major Middle Eastern agricultural pest groups: aphids, whiteflies, scale insects, psyllids Psyllidae and leafhoppers.

2. Heteroptera, which can be recognized by having the basal part of their wings thickened, and by shorter mouthparts. They include the plant-feeding Oxycarenidae, Lygaeidae, Miridae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae and Tingidae as well as the predatory Anthocoridae. The blood-sucking Reduviidae and the parasitic Cimicidae (bed bugs) are also assigned to this suborder.

Many species contaminate their host plants with honeydew and the consequent sootymold, and by vectoring several major plant viral diseases. Members of other families, especially the Anthocoridae, have been used for the biological control of insect pests.

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