Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead
Common name: White mango scale.
Morphology: The female body is elongated, its anterior part wider than the rest of the body. The dorsal macroducts are two-barred, arranged in transverse rows. The large median lobes are divergent, joined at their bases (“zygotic”) whereas the second and third pairs are smaller. The perivulvar pores occur in five clusters on either side of the anus. The white female shield is rounded, with the dark, dorsal juvenile exuvium at one end; the elongated male shield is also whitish, its exuvium at its apex.
Geographical distribution: In most tropical and subtropical countries; Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A, #540. 1993.
Life history: In Egypt the pest has 3-4 annual, partially overlapping population peaks, in spring, summer, autumn and winter. The pest is more abundant on lower, south-facing aspects of trees, and its crawlers are probably dispersed by wind currents.
Economic importance: An important pest of mango in Egypt. Its feeding on fruits cause conspicuous pink blemishes around the feeding sites, cosmetic damage that renders the fruits unmarketable for export. Such fruits may drop or become smaller and lacking in juice. Infested leaves turn pale-green or yellow and ultimately die, young twigs dry up and there are fewer blossoms. Most damage is caused to late-maturing cultivars. Severe infestations may retard mango growth in the nursery, as young trees are most vulnerable to excessive leaf loss and to twig death, especially during dry seasons.
Horticultural control: Pruning and removal of infested twigs and foliage.
Chemical control: Sprays with oils provided good control. The period from April to August was most suitable for the chemical control of this pest In Egypt.
Biological control: Important natural enemies include some Aphytis spp. (especially Aphytis chionaspis Ren), and Encarsia spp., all aphelinids. Some of these parasitoids were mass reared, released in mango orchards and greatly reduced pest numbers. Known enemies include Chilocorus bipustulatus and other Coccinellidae as well as Cybocephalidae.
Abo-Shanab, A.S.H. 2012. Suppression of, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on mango trees in El-Beheira Governorate. Egyptian Academy Journal of Biological Sciences 5: 43-50.
Daneel, M.S. and Dreyer, S. 1998. Biological control of mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis, in South Africa. Yearbook- South African-Mango Growers’ Association 18: 52-55.
Daneel, M.S. and Joubert, P.H. 2009. Biological control of the mango scale Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead (Coccidae: Diaspididae) by a parasitoid Aphytis chionaspis Ren (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Acta Horticulturae 820: 567-574.
Greathead, D.J. 1972. Dispersal of the sugar-cane scale Aulacaspis tegalensis (Zhnt.) (Hem., Diaspididae) by air currents. Bulletin of Entomological Research 61: 547-558.
Juárez-Hernández, P. (and 8 co-authors) 2014. Leaf penetration of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) stylet in mango. Florida Entomologist 97: 100-107.
Labuschange, T.I., Van-Hamburg, H. and Froneman, I.J. 1995. Population dynamics of the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead), (Coccoidea: Diaspididae), in South Africa. Israel Journal of Entomology 29: 207–217.
Nabil, H.A., Shahein, A.A., Hammad, K.A.A. and Hassan, A.S. 2012. Ecological studies of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Diaspididae: Hemiptera) and its natural enemies infesting mango trees in Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. Egyptian Academy Journal of Biological Sciences. 5: 9-17.
Salem, H.A., Mahmoud, Y.A. and Ebadah, M.A. 2015. Seasonal abundance, number of generations and associated injuries of the white mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis (Mangifera) (Newstead) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) attacking mango orchards. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 6: 1373-1379.
Terefe, T.H., Tsegaye, S. and Tadele Wakuma, T. 2014. White mango scale iInsect’s infestations and its Implications in Guto Gida and Diga Distrcts of East Wellega zone. ABC Research Alert 2(2): 1-33.
Viljoen, H.M and De Villiers, E.A. 1987. Effectiveness of fenvalerate and monocrotophos against the mango scale, Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead. Information Bulletin, Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Institute, South Africa 173:19-23.