Bactericera trigonica

Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson

(Formerly known as Trioza nigricornis Foerster)

Systematic position: Insecta, Hemimetabola, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Psylloidea, Triozidae.

Host plants: Carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schübl. & G. Martens), celery (Apium graveolens L.).

Geographical Distribution: Mediterranean countries, Iran.

Morphology: Adults are about 4 mm in length, mostly black, with yellow-grey spots. The nymphs are elongated, orange-colored, and carry a fringe of setae with waxy filaments.

Life history: This psyllid has 7-8 annual generation, a female lays about 400 eggs, glued onto host leaves in rows.

Economic importance: The pest sucks the contents of leaves, which causes their shriveling and subsequent drop. Most damage is to young leaves, which become covered by the sticky honeydew. Symptoms include curling, yellowing, and purple discoloration of leaves and stunting; young seedlings are especially susceptible and may die after pest attack. The psyllid also vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, which, besides carrots, infests sadditional crops and causes various diseases. The psyllid + disease complex has caused severe economic losses to the fresh carrot market in several European countries.


Monitoring: Placing sticky traps in carrot fields.

Chemical control: Organophosphates](entry/Organophosphate) were used against this psyllid in the pest.

Biological control: Entomopathogenic fungi have occasionally been recorded as attacking the psyllid, but their effect is not known.


Alfaro- Fernández, A., Siverio, F., Cebrián, M.C., Villaescusa, F.J. and M.I. Font, I. 2012. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum associated with Bactericera trigonica- affected carrots in the Canary Islands. Plant Disease 56: 581.

Antolinez, C.A., Fereres, A. and Moreno, A. 2017. Risk assessment of Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum transmission by the psyllids Bactericera trigonica and B. tremblayi from Apiaceae crops to potato. Scientific Reports 7: 45534.

Antolinez, C.A., Moreno, A., Appezzato-da-Gloria, B. and Fereres, A. 2017. Characterization of the electrical penetration graphs of the psyllid Bactericera trigonica on carrot. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 163: 127-139.

Burckhardt, D. and Freuler, J. 2000. Jumping plant-lice (Hemiptera, Psylloidea) from sticky traps in carrot fields in Valais, Switzerland. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft 73: 191-209.

Hodkinson, L.D. 1981. Status and taxonomy of the Trioza {Bactericera) nigricornis Förster complex (Hemiptera: Triozidae) Bulletin of Entomological Research 71: 671-679.

Ouvrard, D. and Burckhardt, D. 2012. First record of the onion psyllid Bactericera tremblayi (Wagner, 1961) in France (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psylloidea), new symptoms on leek crops and reassessment of the B. nigricornis-group distribution. _ EPPO Bulletin_ 42: 585-590.