Monochamus galloprovincialis Olivier
Systematic position: Insecta, Holometabola, Coleoptera, Cerambycidae.
Morphology: The body of the adult is mostly dark brown, covered with paler spots. Elytra with 2-3 clearer areas. Head and thorax sometimes with yellow spots, more pronounced on the female. Antennae very long, especially in the male, overreaching body, with some yellow segments. Larva whitish, with a broader brown head.
Geographical distribution: Widely distributed in Europe (except in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Cyprus), and also present in Caucasus, Russia, North Africa, China and Mongolia
Host plants: Various pines (Pinus spp.), of which P. sylvestris L. (Scots pine) appears to be the best.
Life history: The adults mate on the host-trees and their eggs are placed under the bark. The young larvae live and feed in the subcortical zone, the later stages bore galleries in the sapwood. Pupation takes place at the end of the galleries. After emergence the adults fly to healthy trees for maturation feeding. The life cycle is often completed within one year, but may last up to 2 years. On the best host-tree the development of the beetle (at 25ºC) was completed in about 200 days and adults then lived for another 50 days; average fecundity was 127 eggs/female. On other pines development is prolonged and fecundity is lower.
Economic importance: Monochamus galloprovincialis is a secondary pest, colonizing weakened, dying or recently cut pines. Its main damage is due to vectoring the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner & Bührer) Nickle, which is transmitted to pines within a few weeks of beetle infestation. This nematode is a high risk threat to susceptible conifer forests throughout the Mediterranean basin.
Monitoring: Catching the flying beetles by traps baited with attractants (such as ethanol and turpentine) during summer.
Horticultural methods: Sanitation, the removal of wilt-affected pines and/or those showing symptomatic pest damage during winter. Also, catching the flying beetles by traps baited with attractants (such as ethanol and turpentine) during summer.
Chemical control: Trunk Injections of Emamectin benzoate, a derivative of avermectin, reduced beetle (and nematode) numbers.
Biological control: Several parasitoids of the pest were collected in Portugal, of which the most common was the braconid Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius). In Portugal the pest was also infected by the entomopathpogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana Bals.-Criv.) Vuill.
Akbulut, S., 2009. Comparison of the reproductive potential of Monochamus galloprovincialis on two pine species under laboratory conditions. Phytoparasitica 37: 125–135.
Bonifácio, L., Praias, F. and Sousa, E. 2012. Trapping Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with pine allelochemicals, in Portugal. Silva Lusitana 20: 39-53.
Naves, P., Sousa E.M. and Bonifacio, L. 2016. The pine wood nematode and its local vectors in the Mediterranean Basin. In: Paine, T.D. and Lieutier, F. (Editors) Insects and Diseases of Mediterranean Forest Systems, Springer, pp. 329-278.
Naves, P., Sousa, E. and Rodrigues, J.M., 2008. Biology of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the pine wilt disease affected zone, Southern Portugal. Silva Lusitana 16: 133-148.
Petersen-Silva, R., Pujade-Villar, J., Naves, P., Godinho-Ferreira, P., Sousa, E. and Belokobylskij, S. 2012. Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region. ZooKeys 251: 29–48.
Sousa, E., Naves, P. and Vieira, M., 2013. Prevention of pine wilt disease induced by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Monochamus galloprovincialis by trunk injection of emamectin benzoate. Phytoparasitica 41: 143–148.