Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood)
Common name: Cottony camellia scale,
Geographic distribution: Almost cosmopolitan.
Morphology: Body of adult scale about 3 mm in length, elongate, slightly convex, dorsum light to dark-yellowish green, mottled with dark brown spots. Submarginal tubercles present, anal plate equal-sided. Ovisac elongate, whitish, about 4-9 mm in length, straight or curved.
Life history: Each parthenogenetic female lays 350-700 eggs that are placed in the ovisac. The hatched, almost-translucent nymphs move on the leaves, usually settle on their lower side to develop and excrete much honeydew. Its life history is affected by the host plant, as at 30ºC, a cycle on guava required 81 days, on citrus 70 and on fig, 60 days.
Economic importance: A major pest of guava and mango trees in Egypt and of tea and citrus in Iran. Damage is due to large amounts of honeydew that encourages the growth of black sootymold that weakens the host, causing leaf loss and the dieback of twigs and branches.
Chemical control: Treatments with a compound of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) and a white oil provided moderate control of P. floccifera without affecting its natural enemies.
Biological control: The pest is attacked by many parasitoids, of which the aphelinid Coccophagus scutellaris and Microterys nietneri are very effective. Predators include the coccinellids, Chilocorus bipustulatus L. and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant.
Abd-Rabou, S. 2011. Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): A highly effective biological control agent of soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Egypt. Psyche Article ID 431874, 1-6.
Abd-Rabou, S., Badary, H. and Ahmed, N. 2012. Control measures of two soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae) infesting guava and mango trees in Egypt. The Journal of Basic & Applied Zoology 65: 55-61.
Abd-Rabou, S., Aly, N. and Badary, H. 2012. Biological studies of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera (Hemiptera: Coccidae) with updating lists of host plants and natural enemies in Egypt. Egyptian Academy Journal of Biological Science 5: 107-112.
Abdel-Razak,S.I., Badr, S.A. and Karam, H.H. 2014. The identity of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) (Coccidae: Pulvinariini) in Egypt. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2: 185-188.
Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R. and Gibson, G.A.P. 2014. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/catalogs/coccidae/Pulvinariafloccifera.htm.
Halaji-Sani, M.F., Rasekh, A. and Golein, B. 2012. Biology and seasonal fluctuation of cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria (Chloropulvinaria) floccifera (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in citrus orchards of northern Iran. Journal of Entomological Research 4: 289-296.
Naeimamini, S., Abbasipour, H. and Aghajanzadeh, S. 2014. Spatial distribution of the cottony camellia scale, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in the tea orchards. Journal of Plant Protection Research 54: 44-52.